🐠 Human-in-the-loop weak supervision with snorkel

This tutorial will walk you through the process of using Rubrix to improve weak supervision and data programming workflows with the amazing Snorkel library.

Snorkel explore


Our goal is to show you how you can incorporate Rubrix into data programming workflows to programatically build training data with a human-in-the-loop approach. We will use the widely-known Snorkel library, but a similar approach can be used with other data augmentation libraries such as Textattack or nlpaug.

What is weak supervision? and Snorkel?

Weak supervision is a branch of machine learning based on getting lower quality labels more efficiently. We can achieve this by using Snorkel, a library for programmatically building and managing training datasets without manual labeling.

This tutorial

In this tutorial, we’ll follow the Spam classification tutorial from Snorkel’s documentation and show you how to extend weak supervision workflows with Rubrix.

The tutorial is organized into:

  1. Spam classification with Snorkel: we provide a brief overview of the tutorial

  2. Extending and finding labeling functions with Rubrix: we analyze different strategies for extending the proposed labeling functions and for exploring new labeling functions

Install Snorkel, Textblob and spaCy

[ ]:
%pip install snorkel textblob spacy -qqq
[ ]:
!python -m spacy download en_core_web_sm -qqq

Setup Rubrix

If you are new to Rubrix, visit and ⭐ star Rubrix for more materials like and detailed docs: Github repo

If you have not installed and launched Rubrix, check the Setup and Installation guide.

Once installed, you only need to import Rubrix:

import rubrix as rb

1. Spam classification with Snorkel

Rubrix allows you to log and track data for different NLP tasks (such as Token Classification or Text Classification).

In this tutorial, we will use the YouTube Spam Collection dataset which a binary classification task for detecting spam comments in youtube videos.

The dataset

We have a training set and and a test set. The first one does not include the label of the samples and it is set to -1. The test set contains ground-truth labels from the original dataset, where the label is set to 1 if it’s considered SPAM and 0 for HAM.

In this tutorial we’ll be using Snorkel’s data programming methods for programatically building a training set with the help of Rubrix for analizing and reviewing data. We’ll then train a model with this train set and evaluate it against the test set.

Let’s load it in Pandas and take a look!

import pandas as pd
df_train = pd.read_csv('data/yt_comments_train.csv')
df_test = pd.read_csv('data/yt_comments_test.csv')
Unnamed: 0 author date text label video
0 0 Alessandro leite 2014-11-05T22:21:36 pls http://www10.vakinha.com.br/VaquinhaE.aspx... -1.0 1
1 1 Salim Tayara 2014-11-02T14:33:30 if your like drones, plz subscribe to Kamal Ta... -1.0 1
2 2 Phuc Ly 2014-01-20T15:27:47 go here to check the views :3 -1.0 1
3 3 DropShotSk8r 2014-01-19T04:27:18 Came here to check the views, goodbye. -1.0 1
4 4 css403 2014-11-07T14:25:48 i am 2,126,492,636 viewer :D -1.0 1
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
1581 443 Themayerlife NaN Check out my mummy chanel! -1.0 4
1582 444 Fill Reseni 2015-05-27T17:10:53.724000 The rap: cool Rihanna: STTUUPID -1.0 4
1583 445 Greg Fils Aimé NaN I hope everyone is in good spirits I'm a h... -1.0 4
1584 446 Lil M NaN Lil m !!!!! Check hi out!!!!! Does live the wa... -1.0 4
1585 447 AvidorFilms NaN Please check out my youtube channel! Just uplo... -1.0 4

1586 rows × 6 columns

Unnamed: 0 author date text label video
0 27 ‫حلم الشباب‬‎ 2015-05-25T23:42:49.533000 Check out this video on YouTube: 1 5
1 194 MOHAMED THASLEEM 2015-05-24T07:03:59.488000 super music 0 5
2 277 AlabaGames 2015-05-22T00:31:43.922000 Subscribe my channel  I RECORDING FIFA 15 GOAL... 1 5
3 132 Manish Ray 2015-05-23T08:55:07.512000 This song is so beauty 0 5
4 163 Sudheer Yadav 2015-05-28T10:28:25.133000 SEE SOME MORE SONG OPEN GOOGLE AND TYPE Shakir... 1 5
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
245 32 GamezZ MTA 2015-05-09T00:08:26.185000 Pleas subscribe my channel 1 5
246 176 Viv Varghese 2015-05-25T08:59:50.837000 The best FIFA world cup song for sure. 0 5
247 314 yakikukamo FIRELOVER 2013-07-18T17:07:06.152000 hey you ! check out the channel of Alvar Lake !! 1 5
248 25 James Cook 2013-10-10T18:08:07.815000 Hello Guys...I Found a Way to Make Money Onlin... 1 5
249 11 Trulee IsNotAmazing 2013-09-07T14:18:22.601000 Beautiful song beautiful girl it works 0 5

250 rows × 6 columns

Labeling functions

Labeling functions (LFs) are Python function which encode heuristics (such as keywords or pattern matching), distant supervision methods (using external knowledge) or even “low-quality” crowd-worker label datasets. The goal is to create a probabilistic model which is able to combine the output of a set of noisy labels assigned by this LFs. Snorkel provides several strategies for defining and combining LFs, for more information check Snorkel LFs tutorial.

In this tutorial, we will first define the LFs from the Snorkel tutorial and then show you how you can use Rubrix to enhance this type of weak-supervision workflows.

Let’s take a look at the original LFs:

import re

from snorkel.labeling import labeling_function, LabelingFunction
from snorkel.labeling.lf.nlp import nlp_labeling_function
from snorkel.preprocess import preprocessor
from snorkel.preprocess.nlp import SpacyPreprocessor

from textblob import TextBlob

HAM = 0
SPAM = 1

# Keyword searches
def check(x):
    return SPAM if "check" in x.text.lower() else ABSTAIN

def check_out(x):
    return SPAM if "check out" in x.text.lower() else ABSTAIN

# Heuristics
def short_comment(x):
    """Ham comments are often short, such as 'cool video!'"""
    return HAM if len(x.text.split()) < 5 else ABSTAIN

# List of keywords
def keyword_lookup(x, keywords, label):
    if any(word in x.text.lower() for word in keywords):
        return label
    return ABSTAIN

def make_keyword_lf(keywords, label=SPAM):
    return LabelingFunction(
        resources=dict(keywords=keywords, label=label),

"""Spam comments talk about 'my channel', 'my video', etc."""
keyword_my = make_keyword_lf(keywords=["my"])

"""Spam comments ask users to subscribe to their channels."""
keyword_subscribe = make_keyword_lf(keywords=["subscribe"])

"""Spam comments post links to other channels."""
keyword_link = make_keyword_lf(keywords=["http"])

"""Spam comments make requests rather than commenting."""
keyword_please = make_keyword_lf(keywords=["please", "plz"])

"""Ham comments actually talk about the video's content."""
keyword_song = make_keyword_lf(keywords=["song"], label=HAM)

# Pattern matching with regex
def regex_check_out(x):
    return SPAM if re.search(r"check.*out", x.text, flags=re.I) else ABSTAIN

# Third party models (TextBlob and spaCy)
# TextBlob
def textblob_sentiment(x):
    scores = TextBlob(x.text)
    x.polarity = scores.sentiment.polarity
    x.subjectivity = scores.sentiment.subjectivity
    return x

def textblob_subjectivity(x):
    return HAM if x.subjectivity >= 0.5 else ABSTAIN

def textblob_polarity(x):
    return HAM if x.polarity >= 0.9 else ABSTAIN

# spaCy

# There are two different methods to use spaCy:
# Method 1:
spacy = SpacyPreprocessor(text_field="text", doc_field="doc", memoize=True)

def has_person(x):
    """Ham comments mention specific people and are short."""
    if len(x.doc) < 20 and any([ent.label_ == "PERSON" for ent in x.doc.ents]):
        return HAM
        return ABSTAIN

# Method 2:
def has_person_nlp(x):
    """Ham comments mention specific people."""
    if any([ent.label_ == "PERSON" for ent in x.doc.ents]):
        return HAM
        return ABSTAIN
# List of labeling functions proposed at
original_labelling_functions = [

We have mentioned multiple functions that could be used to label our data, but we never gave a solution on how to deal with the overlap and conflicts.

To handle this issue, Snorkel provide the LabelModel. You can read more about how it works in the Snorkel tutorial and the documentation.

Let’s just use a LabelModel to test the proposed LFs and let’s wrap it into a function so we can reuse it to evaluate new LFs along the way:

from snorkel.labeling import PandasLFApplier
from snorkel.labeling.model import LabelModel

def test_label_model(lfs):

    # Apply LFs to datasets
    applier = PandasLFApplier(lfs=lfs)
    L_train = applier.apply(df=df_train)
    L_test = applier.apply(df=df_test)
    Y_test = df_test.label.values # y_test labels

    label_model = LabelModel(cardinality=2, verbose=True) # cardinality = nº of classes
    label_model.fit(L_train=L_train, n_epochs=500, log_freq=100, seed=123)

    label_model_acc = label_model.score(L=L_test, Y=Y_test, tie_break_policy="random")[
    print(f"{'Label Model Accuracy:':<25} {label_model_acc * 100:.1f}%")
    return label_model

label_model = test_label_model(original_labelling_functions)
100%|██████████| 1586/1586 [00:14<00:00, 112.31it/s]
100%|██████████| 250/250 [00:02<00:00, 98.86it/s]
Label Model Accuracy:     85.6%

2. Extending and finding labeling functions with Rubrix

In this section, we’ll review some of the LFs from the original tutorial and see how to use Rubrix in combination with Snorkel.

Exploring the training set with Rubrix for initial inspiration

Rubrix lets you track data for different NLP tasks (such as Token Classification or Text Classification).

Let’s log our unlabelled training set into Rubrix for initial inspiration:

records= []

for index, record in df_train.iterrows():
    item = rb.TextClassificationRecord(
        metadata = {
            "author": record.author,
            "video": str(record.video)
rb.log(records=records, name="yt_spam_snorkel")
BulkResponse(dataset='yt_spam_snorkel', processed=1586, failed=0)

After a few seconds, we have a fully searchable version of our unlabelled training set, which can be used for quickly defining new LFs or improve existing ones. We can of course view our data on a text editor, using Pandas or printing rows on a Jupyter Notebook, but Rubrix focuses on making this easy and powerful with features like searching using the Elasticsearch’s query string DSL, or the ability to log arbitrary inputs and metadata items.

Snorkel explore

First thing we can see on our Rubrix Dataset are the most frequent keywords on our text field. With just a quick look, we can see the coverage of two of the proposed keyword-based LFs (using the word “check” and “subscribe”):

Another thing we can do is to explore by metadata. Let’s say we want to check the distribution by authors, as maybe some authors are posting SPAM several times with different wordings. Here we can see one of the top posting authors, who’s also a top spammer, but seems to be using very similar messages:

Exploring some other top spammers, we see some of them use the word “money”, let’s check some examples using this keyword:

Snorkel explore

Yes, it seems using “money” has some correlation with SPAM and a overlaps with “check” but still covers other data points (as we can see in the Keywords component).

Let’s add this new LF to see its effect:

def money(x):
    return SPAM if "money" in x.text.lower() else ABSTAIN
label_model = test_label_model(original_labelling_functions + [money])
100%|██████████| 1586/1586 [00:00<00:00, 3540.46it/s]
100%|██████████| 250/250 [00:00<00:00, 4887.67it/s]
Label Model Accuracy:     86.8%

Yes! With just some quick exploration we’ve improved the accuracy of the Label Model by 1.2%.

Exploring and improving heuristic LFs

We’ve already seen how to use keywords to label our data, the next step would be to use heuristics to do the labeling.

A simple approach proposed in the original Snorkel tutorial is checking the length of the comments’ text, considering it SPAM if its length is lower than a threshold.

To find a suitable threshold we can use Rubrix to visually explore the messages, similar to what we did before with the author selection.

records= []

for index, record in df_train.iterrows():
    item = rb.TextClassificationRecord(
        metadata = {
            "textlen": str(len(record.text.split())), # Nº of 'words' in the sample
rb.log(records=records, name="yt_spam_snorkel_heuristic")
BulkResponse(dataset='yt_spam_snorkel_heuristic', processed=1586, failed=0)

In the original tutorial, a threshold of 5 words is used, by exploring in Rubrix, we see we can go above that threshold. Let’s try with 20 words:

def short_comment_2(x):
    """Ham comments are often short, such as 'cool video!'"""
    return HAM if len(x.text.split()) < 20 else ABSTAIN
# let's replace the original short comment function
LabelingFunction short_comment, Preprocessors: []
original_labelling_functions[6] = short_comment_2
label_model = test_label_model(original_labelling_functions + [money])
100%|██████████| 1586/1586 [00:00<00:00, 5388.84it/s]
100%|██████████| 250/250 [00:00<00:00, 5542.86it/s]
Label Model Accuracy:     90.8%

Yes! With some additional exploration we’ve improved the accuracy of the Label Model by 5.2%.

current_lfs = original_labelling_functions + [money]

Exploring third-party models LFs with Rubrix

Another class of Snorkel LFs are those third-party models, which can be combined with the Label Model.

Rubrix can be used for exploring how these models work with unlabelled data in order to define more precise LFs.

Let’s see this with the original Textblob’s based labelling functions.


Let’s explore Textblob predictions on the training set with Rubrix:

from textblob import TextBlob

records= []
for index, record in df_train.iterrows():
    scores = TextBlob(record["text"])
    item = rb.TextClassificationRecord(
        multi_label= False,
        prediction=[("subjectivity", max(0.0, scores.sentiment.subjectivity))],
        metadata = {
            "author": record.author,
            "video": str(record.video)

rb.log(records=records, name="yt_spam_snorkel_textblob")
BulkResponse(dataset='yt_spam_snorkel_textblob', processed=1586, failed=0)

Checking the dataset, we can filter our data based on the prediction score of our classifier. This can help us since the predictions of our TextBlob tend to be SPAM the lower the subjectivity is. We can take advantage of this and filter the predictions by their score:

Snorkel explore

3. Checking and curating programatically created data

In this section, we’re going to analyse the training set we’re able to generate using our data programming model (the Label Model).

First thing, we need to do is to remove the unlabeled data. Remember we’re only labeling a subset using our model:

[ ]:
from snorkel.labeling import filter_unlabeled_dataframe

applier = PandasLFApplier(lfs=current_lfs)
L_train = applier.apply(df=df_train)
L_test = applier.apply(df=df_test)

df_train_filtered, probs_train_filtered = filter_unlabeled_dataframe(
    y=label_model.predict_proba(L_train), # Probabilities of each data point for each class

Now that we have our data, we can explore the results in Rubrix and manually relabel those cases that have been wrongly classified or keep exploring the performance of our LFs.

records = []
for i, (index, record) in enumerate(df_train_filtered.iterrows()):
    item = rb.TextClassificationRecord(
        # our scores come from probs_train_filtered
        # probs_train_filtered[i][j] is the probability the sample i belongs to class j
        prediction=[("HAM", probs_train_filtered[i][0]),   # 0 for HAM
                    ("SPAM", probs_train_filtered[i][1])], # 1 for SPAM
rb.log(records=records, name="yt_filtered_classified_sample")
BulkResponse(dataset='yt_filtered_classified_sample_2', processed=1568, failed=0)

With this Rubrix Dataset, we can explore the predictions of our label model. We could add the label model output as annotations to create a training set and share it subject matter experts for review e.g., for relabelling problematic data points.

To do this, simply adding the max. probability class as annotation:

records = []
for i, (index, record) in enumerate(df_train_filtered.iterrows()):
    gold_label = "SPAM" if probs_train_filtered[i][1] > probs_train_filtered[i][0] else "HAM"
    item = rb.TextClassificationRecord(
        # our scores come from probs_train_filtered
        # probs_train_filtered[i][j] is the probability the sample i belongs to class j
        prediction=[("HAM", probs_train_filtered[i][0]),   # 0 for HAM
                    ("SPAM", probs_train_filtered[i][1])], # 1 for SPAM
rb.log(records=records, name="yt_filtered_classified_sample_with_annotation")
BulkResponse(dataset='yt_filtered_classified_sample_with_annotation', processed=1568, failed=0)

Using the Annotation mode, you and other users could review the labels proposed by the Snorkel model and refine the training set, with a similar exploration pattern as we used for defining LFs.

Snorkel explore

4. Training and evaluating a classifier

The next thing we can do with our data is training a classifier using some of the most popular libraries such as Scikit-learn, Tensorflow or Pytorch. For simplicity, we will use scikit-learn, a widely-used library.

from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import CountVectorizer

vectorizer = CountVectorizer(ngram_range=(1, 5)) # Bag Of Words (BoW) with n-grams
X_train = vectorizer.fit_transform(df_train_filtered.text.tolist())
X_test = vectorizer.transform(df_test.text.tolist())

Since we need to tell the model the class for each sample, and we have probabilities, we can assign to each sample the class with the highest probability.

from snorkel.utils import probs_to_preds

preds_train_filtered = probs_to_preds(probs=probs_train_filtered)

And then build the classifier

[ ]:
from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression

Y_test = df_test.label.values

sklearn_model = LogisticRegression(C=1e3, solver="liblinear")
sklearn_model.fit(X=X_train, y=preds_train_filtered)
print(f"Test Accuracy: {sklearn_model.score(X=X_test, y=Y_test) * 100:.1f}%")
Test Accuracy: 91.6%

Let’s explore how our new model performs on the test data, in this case the annotation comes from the test set:

records = []
for index, record in df_test.iterrows():
    preds = sklearn_model.predict_proba(vectorizer.transform([record["text"]]))
    preds = preds[0]
    item = rb.TextClassificationRecord(
        prediction=[("HAM", preds[0]),   # 0 for HAM
                    ("SPAM", preds[1])], # 1 for SPAM
        annotation=["SPAM" if record.label == 1 else "HAM"]
rb.log(records=records, name="yt_my_model_test")
BulkResponse(dataset='yt_my_model_test', processed=250, failed=0)

This exploration is useful for error analysis and debugging, for example we can check all incorrectly classified examples using the Prediction filters.


In this tutorial, we have learnt to use Snorkel in combination with Rubrix for data programming workflows.

Next steps

🙋‍♀️ Join the Rubrix community! A good place to start is the discussion forum.

⭐ Rubrix Github repo to stay updated.